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Research Article

Cooperative Retraction of Bundled Type IV Pili Enables Nanonewton Force Generation

  • Nicolas Biais,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Benoît Ladoux,

    Affiliation: Matière et Systèmes Complexes, CNRS UMR7057/Université Paris 7, Bâtiment Condorcet, 75205 Paris cedex 13, France

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  • Dustin Higashi,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunobiology, BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Magdalene So,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunobiology, BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Michael Sheetz mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ms2001@columbia.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Published: April 15, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060087

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