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Research Article

Evaluation of Excess Significance Bias in Animal Studies of Neurological Diseases

  • Konstantinos K. Tsilidis equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Konstantinos K. Tsilidis, Orestis A. Panagiotou

    Affiliation: Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece

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  • Orestis A. Panagiotou equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Konstantinos K. Tsilidis, Orestis A. Panagiotou

    Affiliation: Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece

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  • Emily S. Sena,

    Affiliations: Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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  • Eleni Aretouli,

    Affiliations: Department of Methods and Experimental Psychology, University of Deusto, Bilbao, Spain, Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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  • Evangelos Evangelou,

    Affiliation: Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece

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  • David W. Howells,

    Affiliation: The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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  • Rustam Al-Shahi Salman,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Malcolm R. Macleod,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • John P. A. Ioannidis mail

    jioannid@stanford.edu

    Affiliation: Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, and Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, and Department of Statistics, Stanford University School of Humanities and Sciences, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Published: July 16, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001609

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