Table of Contents: June 2015


Polio: from Past to Present.

Image Credit: Art by John Megahan.
Issue Image

The background of the illustration conveys the historical picture of paralytic polio—children in iron lungs, or walking with the aid of crutches. In the foreground, we see polio vaccine development—Jonas Salk administering the Inactive Polio Vaccine, and the use of Albert Sabin's Oral Polio Vaccine. Using models to reveal the epidemiology of historical poliovirus transmission in the US, this study by Micaela Martinez-Bakker, Aaron King and Pejman Rohani reconstructs the millions of silent infections and identifies why polio epidemics are explosive, seasonal, and vary geographically. Martinez-Bakker et al.



An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere

Hanna K. E. Landenmark, Duncan H. Forgan, Charles S. Cockell


The Economics of Reproducibility in Preclinical Research

Leonard P. Freedman, Iain M. Cockburn, Timothy S. Simcoe


Community Pages

Research Articles

Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability

Camilo Mora, Iain R. Caldwell, Jamie M. Caldwell, Micah R. Fisher, Brandon M. Genco, Steven W. Running

Unraveling the Transmission Ecology of Polio

Micaela Martinez-Bakker, Aaron A. King, Pejman Rohani

Host–Pathogen Coevolution: The Selective Advantage of Bacillus thuringiensis Virulence and Its Cry Toxin Genes

Leila Masri, Antoine Branca, Anna E. Sheppard, Andrei Papkou, David Laehnemann, Patrick S. Guenther, Swantje Prahl, Manja Saebelfeld, Jacqueline Hollensteiner, Heiko Liesegang, Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz, Rolf Daniel, Nicolaas K. Michiels, Rebecca D. Schulte, Joachim Kurtz, Philip Rosenstiel, Arndt Telschow, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Hinrich Schulenburg

Signatures of Value Comparison in Ventral Striatum Neurons

Caleb E. Strait, Brianna J. Sleezer, Benjamin Y. Hayden

A Sensitive and Specific Neural Signature for Picture-Induced Negative Affect

Luke J. Chang, Peter J. Gianaros, Stephen B. Manuck, Anjali Krishnan, Tor D. Wager

Dynamically Allocated Hub in Task-Evoked Network Predicts the Vulnerable Prefrontal Locus for Contextual Memory Retrieval in Macaques

Takahiro Osada, Yusuke Adachi, Kentaro Miyamoto, Koji Jimura, Rieko Setsuie, Yasushi Miyashita

Simultaneous Brain–Cervical Cord fMRI Reveals Intrinsic Spinal Cord Plasticity during Motor Sequence Learning

Shahabeddin Vahdat, Ovidiu Lungu, Julien Cohen-Adad, Veronique Marchand-Pauvert, Habib Benali, Julien Doyon

Experimental Evidence for Phonemic Contrasts in a Nonhuman Vocal System

Sabrina Engesser, Jodie M. S. Crane, James L. Savage, Andrew F. Russell, Simon W. Townsend

Mesoscopic Patterns of Neural Activity Support Songbird Cortical Sequences

Jeffrey E. Markowitz, William A. Liberti III, Grigori Guitchounts, Tarciso Velho, Carlos Lois, Timothy J. Gardner

Ryanodine Receptor Activation Induces Long-Term Plasticity of Spine Calcium Dynamics

Friedrich W. Johenning, Anne-Kathrin Theis, Ulrike Pannasch, Martin Rückl, Sten Rüdiger, Dietmar Schmitz