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Table of Contents: August 2014

COVER

Mechanism of spider silk formation.

Image Credit: Marlene Andersson
Issue Image

A major ampullate spider silk gland from the spider Nephila clavipes. The conditions determined along the gland, a drop in pH from 7.6 to <5.7 and increased CO2 pressure, cause the synchronous molecular events of a lock and trigger mechanism that govern the silk fiber formation. The broad pH gradient is generated by carbonic anhydrase that is present in a distinct part of the gland. See Andersson et al.

Synopses

How Spiders Spin Silk

Robin Meadows

Essay

How Could Language Have Evolved?

Johan J. Bolhuis, Ian Tattersall, Noam Chomsky, Robert C. Berwick

Community Page

Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea: Sequencing a Myriad of Type Strains

Nikos C. Kyrpides, Philip Hugenholtz, Jonathan A. Eisen, Tanja Woyke, Markus Göker, Charles T. Parker, Rudolf Amann, Brian J. Beck, Patrick S. G. Chain, Jongsik Chun, Rita R. Colwell, Antoine Danchin, Peter Dawyndt, Tom Dedeurwaerdere, Edward F. DeLong, John C. Detter, Paul De Vos, Timothy J. Donohue, Xiu-Zhu Dong, Dusko S. Ehrlich, Claire Fraser, Richard Gibbs, Jack Gilbert, Paul Gilna, Frank Oliver Glöckner, Janet K. Jansson, Jay D. Keasling, Rob Knight, David Labeda, Alla Lapidus, Jung-Sook Lee, Wen-Jun Li, Juncai MA, Victor Markowitz, Edward R. B. Moore, Mark Morrison, Folker Meyer, Karen E. Nelson, Moriya Ohkuma, Christos A. Ouzounis, Norman Pace, Julian Parkhill, Nan Qin, Ramon Rossello-Mora, Johannes Sikorski, David Smith, Mitch Sogin, Rick Stevens, Uli Stingl, Ken-ichiro Suzuki, Dorothea Taylor, Jim M. Tiedje, Brian Tindall, Michael Wagner, George Weinstock, Jean Weissenbach, Owen White, Jun Wang, Lixin Zhang, Yu-Guang Zhou, Dawn Field, William B. Whitman, George M. Garrity, Hans-Peter Klenk

Research Articles

Adaptive Evolution and Environmental Durability Jointly Structure Phylodynamic Patterns in Avian Influenza Viruses

Benjamin Roche, John M. Drake, Justin Brown, David E. Stallknecht, Trevor Bedford, Pejman Rohani

In Vitro Generation of Neuromesodermal Progenitors Reveals Distinct Roles for Wnt Signalling in the Specification of Spinal Cord and Paraxial Mesoderm Identity

Mina Gouti, Anestis Tsakiridis, Filip J. Wymeersch, Yali Huang, Jens Kleinjung, Valerie Wilson, James Briscoe

Dynamic Changes in Phase-Amplitude Coupling Facilitate Spatial Attention Control in Fronto-Parietal Cortex

Sara M. Szczepanski, Nathan E. Crone, Rachel A. Kuperman, Kurtis I. Auguste, Josef Parvizi, Robert T. Knight

Pyramidal Cells Make Specific Connections onto Smooth (GABAergic) Neurons in Mouse Visual Cortex

Rita Bopp, Nuno Maçarico da Costa, Björn M. Kampa, Kevan A. C. Martin, Morgane M. Roth

The Genomic Landscape of Compensatory Evolution

Béla Szamecz, Gábor Boross, Dorottya Kalapis, Károly Kovács, Gergely Fekete, Zoltán Farkas, Viktória Lázár, Mónika Hrtyan, Patrick Kemmeren, Marian J. A. Groot Koerkamp, Edit Rutkai, Frank C. P. Holstege, Balázs Papp, Csaba Pál

Bistable Expression of Virulence Genes in Salmonella Leads to the Formation of an Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation

Markus Arnoldini, Ima Avalos Vizcarra, Rafael Peña-Miller, Nicolas Stocker, Médéric Diard, Viola Vogel, Robert E. Beardmore, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt, Martin Ackermann

A Bioenergetic Basis for Membrane Divergence in Archaea and Bacteria

Víctor Sojo, Andrew Pomiankowski, Nick Lane

Heterodimerization of p45–p75 Modulates p75 Signaling: Structural Basis and Mechanism of Action

Marçal Vilar, Tsung-Chang Sung, Zhijiang Chen, Irmina García-Carpio, Eva M. Fernandez, Jiqing Xu, Roland Riek, Kuo-Fen Lee

Crossover Localisation Is Regulated by the Neddylation Posttranslational Regulatory Pathway

Marina Tagliaro Jahns, Daniel Vezon, Aurélie Chambon, Lucie Pereira, Matthieu Falque, Olivier C. Martin, Liudmila Chelysheva, Mathilde Grelon

Inhibitor of the Tyrosine Phosphatase STEP Reverses Cognitive Deficits in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Jian Xu, Manavi Chatterjee, Tyler D. Baguley, Jonathan Brouillette, Pradeep Kurup, Debolina Ghosh, Jean Kanyo, Yang Zhang, Kathleen Seyb, Chimezie Ononenyi, Ethan Foscue, George M. Anderson, Jodi Gresack, Gregory D. Cuny, Marcie A. Glicksman, Paul Greengard, TuKiet T. Lam, Lutz Tautz, Angus C. Nairn, Jonathan A. Ellman, Paul J. Lombroso

Carbonic Anhydrase Generates CO2 and H+ That Drive Spider Silk Formation Via Opposite Effects on the Terminal Domains

Marlene Andersson, Gefei Chen, Martins Otikovs, Michael Landreh, Kerstin Nordling, Nina Kronqvist, Per Westermark, Hans Jörnvall, Stefan Knight, Yvonne Ridderstråle, Lena Holm, Qing Meng, Kristaps Jaudzems, Mitchell Chesler, Jan Johansson, Anna Rising