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Table of Contents: June 2014

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Although initially characterized as an organ with an immune privileged state, the brain does intimately interact with the immune system, particularly in response to systemic inflammation. Strong evidence for a direct transfer of functional RNA between blood and brain comes from transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase specifically in the hematopoietic lineage displaying numerous recombined Purkinje neurons in response to inflammation. This transfer from blood to neurons is mediated by extracellular vesicles of hematopoietic origin containing Cre RNA leading to reporter gene expression in recipient cells. Recombined neurons show changes in their microRNA profile, further indicating a previously unrecognized RNA-based communication between the hematopoietic system and various organs, including the brain, in response to inflammation. See Ridder et al.

Editorial

New Horizons for Plant Translational Research

Jane Alfred, Jeffery L. Dangl, Sophien Kamoun, Susan R. McCouch

Synopses

Essays

Key Applications of Plant Metabolic Engineering

Warren Lau, Michael A. Fischbach, Anne Osbourn, Elizabeth S. Sattely

Perspectives

Antarctica’s Protected Areas Are Inadequate, Unrepresentative, and at Risk

Justine D. Shaw, Aleks Terauds, Martin J. Riddle, Hugh P. Possingham, Steven L. Chown

Community Pages

The Marine Microbial Eukaryote Transcriptome Sequencing Project (MMETSP): Illuminating the Functional Diversity of Eukaryotic Life in the Oceans through Transcriptome Sequencing

Patrick J. Keeling, Fabien Burki, Heather M. Wilcox, Bassem Allam, Eric E. Allen, Linda A. Amaral-Zettler, E. Virginia Armbrust, John M. Archibald, Arvind K. Bharti, Callum J. Bell, Bank Beszteri, Kay D. Bidle, Connor T. Cameron, Lisa Campbell, David A. Caron, Rose Ann Cattolico, Jackie L. Collier, Kathryn Coyne, Simon K. Davy, Phillipe Deschamps, Sonya T. Dyhrman, Bente Edvardsen, Ruth D. Gates, Christopher J. Gobler, Spencer J. Greenwood, Stephanie M. Guida, Jennifer L. Jacobi, Kjetill S. Jakobsen, Erick R. James, Bethany Jenkins, Uwe John, Matthew D. Johnson, Andrew R. Juhl, Anja Kamp, Laura A. Katz, Ronald Kiene, Alexander Kudryavtsev, Brian S. Leander, Senjie Lin, Connie Lovejoy, Denis Lynn, Adrian Marchetti, George McManus, Aurora M. Nedelcu, Susanne Menden-Deuer, Cristina Miceli, Thomas Mock, Marina Montresor, Mary Ann Moran, Shauna Murray, Govind Nadathur, Satoshi Nagai, Peter B. Ngam, Brian Palenik, Jan Pawlowski, Giulio Petroni, Gwenael Piganeau, Matthew C. Posewitz, Karin Rengefors, Giovanna Romano, Mary E. Rumpho, Tatiana Rynearson, Kelly B. Schilling, Declan C. Schroeder, Alastair G. B. Simpson, Claudio H. Slamovits, David R. Smith, G. Jason Smith, Sarah R. Smith, Heidi M. Sosik, Peter Stief, Edward Theriot, Scott N. Twary, Pooja E. Umale, Daniel Vaulot, Boris Wawrik, Glen L. Wheeler, William H. Wilson, Yan Xu, Adriana Zingone, Alexandra Z. Worden

Research Articles

Targeting Global Protected Area Expansion for Imperiled Biodiversity

Oscar Venter, Richard A. Fuller, Daniel B. Segan, Josie Carwardine, Thomas Brooks, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Moreno Di Marco, Takuya Iwamura, Liana Joseph, Damien O'Grady, Hugh P. Possingham, Carlo Rondinini, Robert J. Smith, Michelle Venter, James E. M. Watson

A Novel Nodal Enhancer Dependent on Pluripotency Factors and Smad2/3 Signaling Conditions a Regulatory Switch During Epiblast Maturation

Costis Papanayotou, Ataaillah Benhaddou, Anne Camus, Aitana Perea-Gomez, Alice Jouneau, Valérie Mezger, Francina Langa, Sascha Ott, Délara Sabéran-Djoneidi, Jérôme Collignon

Selection of Motor Programs for Suppressing Food Intake and Inducing Locomotion in the Drosophila Brain

Andreas Schoofs, Sebastian Hückesfeld, Philipp Schlegel, Anton Miroschnikow, Marc Peters, Malou Zeymer, Roland Spieß, Ann-Shyn Chiang, Michael J. Pankratz

The Wnt Receptor Ryk Reduces Neuronal and Cell Survival Capacity by Repressing FOXO Activity During the Early Phases of Mutant Huntingtin Pathogenicity

Cendrine Tourette, Francesca Farina, Rafael P. Vazquez-Manrique, Anne-Marie Orfila, Jessica Voisin, Sonia Hernandez, Nicolas Offner, J. Alex Parker, Sophie Menet, Jinho Kim, Jungmok Lyu, Si Ho Choi, Kerry Cormier, Christina K. Edgerly, Olivia L. Bordiuk, Karen Smith, Anne Louise, Michael Halford, Steven Stacker, Jean-Philippe Vert, Robert J. Ferrante, Wange Lu, Christian Neri

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2α Is an Essential Catabolic Regulator of Inflammatory Rheumatoid Arthritis

Je-Hwang Ryu, Chang-Suk Chae, Ji-Sun Kwak, Hwanhee Oh, Youngnim Shin, Yun Hyun Huh, Choong-Gu Lee, Yong-Wook Park, Churl-Hong Chun, Young-Myeong Kim, Sin-Hyeog Im, Jang-Soo Chun

Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Transfer of Genetic Information between the Hematopoietic System and the Brain in Response to Inflammation

Kirsten Ridder, Sascha Keller, Maria Dams, Anne-Kathleen Rupp, Jessica Schlaudraff, Domenico Del Turco, Julia Starmann, Jadranka Macas, Darja Karpova, Kavi Devraj, Candan Depboylu, Britta Landfried, Bernd Arnold, Karl H. Plate, Günter Höglinger, Holger Sültmann, Peter Altevogt, Stefan Momma

Fusion of Protein Aggregates Facilitates Asymmetric Damage Segregation

Miguel Coelho, Steven J. Lade, Simon Alberti, Thilo Gross, Iva M. Tolić