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Table of Contents: May 2014

Issue Image

In the vertebrate retina, horizontal cells (yellow) receive input from photoreceptors (red, green and blue cells at the top of the image), and feed back to them. This interaction is the first step in visualizing contrast enhancement. The synaptic mechanism underlying this interaction is a combination of an extremely fast and a slow component. The fast component is an ephaptic interaction. The slow component involves pannexin 1 channels and extracellular ATP hydrolysis by ecto-ATPases (horseshoe shaped green label at the right side of the image) that leads to changes in pH in the synaptic cleft. The resulting pH-change affects neurotransmitter release by the photoreceptors. See Vroman et al.

Synopses

Essay

A Unified Classification of Alien Species Based on the Magnitude of their Environmental Impacts

Tim M. Blackburn, Franz Essl, Thomas Evans, Philip E. Hulme, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Ingolf Kühn, Sabrina Kumschick, Zuzana Marková, Agata Mrugała, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Anthony Ricciardi, David M. Richardson, Agnieszka Sendek, Montserrat Vilà, John R. U. Wilson, Marten Winter, Piero Genovesi, Sven Bacher

Perspectives

Genital Evolution: Why Are Females Still Understudied?

Malin Ah-King, Andrew B. Barron, Marie E. Herberstein

Research Articles

The Evolutionary Origin of Somatic Cells under the Dirty Work Hypothesis

Heather J. Goldsby, David B. Knoester, Charles Ofria, Benjamin Kerr

The Kinase Regulator Mob1 Acts as a Patterning Protein for Stentor Morphogenesis

Mark M. Slabodnick, J. Graham Ruby, Joshua G. Dunn, Jessica L. Feldman, Joseph L. DeRisi, Wallace F. Marshall

Extracellular ATP Hydrolysis Inhibits Synaptic Transmission by Increasing pH Buffering in the Synaptic Cleft

Rozan Vroman, Lauw J. Klaassen, Marcus H.C. Howlett, Valentina Cenedese, Jan Klooster, Trijntje Sjoerdsma, Maarten Kamermans

Tnfa Signaling Through Tnfr2 Protects Skin Against Oxidative Stress–Induced Inflammation

Sergio Candel, Sofía de Oliveira, Azucena López-Muñoz, Diana García-Moreno, Raquel Espín-Palazón, Sylwia D. Tyrkalska, María L. Cayuela, Stephen A. Renshaw, Raúl Corbalán-Vélez, Inmaculada Vidal-Abarca, Huai-Jen Tsai, José Meseguer, María P. Sepulcre, Victoriano Mulero

Exceptional Evolutionary Divergence of Human Muscle and Brain Metabolomes Parallels Human Cognitive and Physical Uniqueness

Katarzyna Bozek, Yuning Wei, Zheng Yan, Xiling Liu, Jieyi Xiong, Masahiro Sugimoto, Masaru Tomita, Svante Pääbo, Raik Pieszek, Chet C. Sherwood, Patrick R. Hof, John J. Ely, Dirk Steinhauser, Lothar Willmitzer, Jens Bangsbo, Ola Hansson, Josep Call, Patrick Giavalisco, Philipp Khaitovich

Genome-Wide Stochastic Adaptive DNA Amplification at Direct and Inverted DNA Repeats in the Parasite Leishmania

Jean-Michel Ubeda, Frédéric Raymond, Angana Mukherjee, Marie Plourde, Hélène Gingras, Gaétan Roy, Andréanne Lapointe, Philippe Leprohon, Barbara Papadopoulou, Jacques Corbeil, Marc Ouellette

Network Analyses Reveal Pervasive Functional Regulation Between Proteases in the Human Protease Web

Nikolaus Fortelny, Jennifer H. Cox, Reinhild Kappelhoff, Amanda E. Starr, Philipp F. Lange, Paul Pavlidis, Christopher M. Overall

RNA Mimicry by the Fap7 Adenylate Kinase in Ribosome Biogenesis

Jérôme Loc'h, Magali Blaud, Stéphane Réty, Simon Lebaron, Patrick Deschamps, Joseph Bareille, Julie Jombart, Julien Robert-Paganin, Lila Delbos, Florian Chardon, Elodie Zhang, Clément Charenton, David Tollervey, Nicolas Leulliot

Structural and Functional Insights into the Mode of Action of a Universally Conserved Obg GTPase

Boya Feng, Chandra Sekhar Mandava, Qiang Guo, Jie Wang, Wei Cao, Ningning Li, Yixiao Zhang, Yanqing Zhang, Zhixin Wang, Jiawei Wu, Suparna Sanyal, Jianlin Lei, Ning Gao