Table of Contents: April 2008


Evolution on a chip.

Image Credit: Photograph by Brian Paegel, The Scripps Research Institute
Issue Image

The photograph shows a magnified view of a microfluidic chip in which billions of RNA enzymes were made to undergo hundreds of generations of Darwinian evolution, all under computer control. The active circuit, filled with blue dye, is 1 cm in diameter and contains five microvalves that are operated pneumatically (see Paegel and Joyce, e85).



Unsolved Mystery

Book Review/Science in the Media

Bioethics Grows Up

Arthur Caplan


Community Page

Research Articles

Climate Change, Humans, and the Extinction of the Woolly Mammoth

David Nogués-Bravo, Jesús Rodríguez, Joaquín Hortal, Persaram Batra, Miguel B Araújo

Compilation and Network Analyses of Cambrian Food Webs

Jennifer A Dunne, Richard J Williams, Neo D Martinez, Rachel A Wood, Douglas H Erwin

Chromosomal Gene Movements Reflect the Recent Origin and Biology of Therian Sex Chromosomes

Lukasz Potrzebowski, Nicolas Vinckenbosch, Ana Claudia Marques, Frédéric Chalmel, Bernard Jégou, Henrik Kaessmann

Rapid Encoding and Perception of Novel Odors in the Rat

Daniel W Wesson, Ryan M Carey, Justus V Verhagen, Matt Wachowiak

Bergmann Glia and the Recognition Molecule CHL1 Organize GABAergic Axons and Direct Innervation of Purkinje Cell Dendrites

Fabrice Ango, Caizhi Wu, Johannes J. Van der Want, Priscilla Wu, Melitta Schachner, Z. Josh Huang

Modelling within-Host Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Invasive Bacterial Disease

Andrew J Grant, Olivier Restif, Trevelyan J McKinley, Mark Sheppard, Duncan J Maskell, Pietro Mastroeni

A Microtubule Interactome: Complexes with Roles in Cell Cycle and Mitosis

Julian R Hughes, Ana M Meireles, Katherine H Fisher, Angel Garcia, Philip R Antrobus, Alan Wainman, Nicole Zitzmann, Charlotte Deane, Hiroyuki Ohkura, James G Wakefield

Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) Restricts Hematopoietic Stem Cell Activity

Ian J Majewski, Marnie E Blewitt, Carolyn A de Graaf, Edward J McManus, Melanie Bahlo, Adrienne A Hilton, Craig D Hyland, Gordon K Smyth, Jason E Corbin, Donald Metcalf, Warren S Alexander, Douglas J Hilton

Iroquois Complex Genes Induce Co-Expression of rhodopsins in Drosophila

Esteban O Mazzoni, Arzu Celik, Mathias F Wernet, Daniel Vasiliauskas, Robert J Johnston, Tiffany A Cook, Franck Pichaud, Claude Desplan

Reconstitution of DNA Strand Exchange Mediated by Rhp51 Recombinase and Two Mediators

Yumiko Kurokawa, Yasuto Murayama, Nami Haruta-Takahashi, Itaru Urabe, Hiroshi Iwasaki

Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation by Spatial Rearrangement of the 3′ Untranslated Region

Andrea B Eberle, Lukas Stalder, Hansruedi Mathys, Rodolfo Zamudio Orozco, Oliver Mühlemann

Host PrP Glycosylation: A Major Factor Determining the Outcome of Prion Infection

Nadia L Tuzi, Enrico Cancellotti, Herbert Baybutt, Lorraine Blackford, Barry Bradford, Chris Plinston, Anne Coghill, Patricia Hart, Pedro Piccardo, Rona M Barron, Jean C Manson

High-Throughput SHAPE Analysis Reveals Structures in HIV-1 Genomic RNA Strongly Conserved across Distinct Biological States

Kevin A Wilkinson, Robert J Gorelick, Suzy M Vasa, Nicolas Guex, Alan Rein, David H Mathews, Morgan C Giddings, Kevin M Weeks

Darwinian Evolution on a Chip

Brian M Paegel, Gerald F Joyce

Cooperative Retraction of Bundled Type IV Pili Enables Nanonewton Force Generation

Nicolas Biais, Benoît Ladoux, Dustin Higashi, Magdalene So, Michael Sheetz