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Research Article

Radar Tracking and Motion-Sensitive Cameras on Flowers Reveal the Development of Pollinator Multi-Destination Routes over Large Spatial Scales

  • Mathieu Lihoreau equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Mathieu Lihoreau, Nigel E. Raine

    Affiliation: Biological and Experimental Psychology Group, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

    Current address: School of Biological Sciences and the Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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  • Nigel E. Raine equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Mathieu Lihoreau, Nigel E. Raine

    Affiliation: Biological and Experimental Psychology Group, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

    Current address: School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, United Kingdom.

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  • Andrew M. Reynolds,

    Affiliation: Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

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  • Ralph J. Stelzer,

    Affiliation: Biological and Experimental Psychology Group, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Ka S. Lim,

    Affiliation: Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

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  • Alan D. Smith,

    Affiliation: Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

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  • Juliet L. Osborne,

    Affiliation: Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

    Current address: Environment & Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom.

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  • Lars Chittka mail

    l.chittka@qmul.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Biological and Experimental Psychology Group, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Published: September 20, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001392

About the Authors

Mathieu Lihoreau, Nigel E. Raine, Ralph J. Stelzer, Lars Chittka
Biological and Experimental Psychology Group, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
Andrew M. Reynolds, Ka S. Lim, Alan D. Smith, Juliet L. Osborne
Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: l.chittka@qmul.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: ML NER LC. Performed the experiments: ML NER RJS ADS. Analyzed the data: ML RJS AMR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AMR KSL ADS JLO. Wrote the paper: ML NER AMR ADS JLO LC.