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Research Article

MicroRNA-Driven Developmental Remodeling in the Brain Distinguishes Humans from Other Primates

  • Mehmet Somel equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Mehmet Somel, Xiling Liu

    Affiliations: Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

    Current address: Department of Integrative Biology, University of California–Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America

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  • Xiling Liu equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Mehmet Somel, Xiling Liu

    Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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  • Lin Tang,

    Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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  • Zheng Yan,

    Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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  • Haiyang Hu,

    Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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  • Song Guo,

    Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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  • Xi Jiang,

    Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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  • Xiaoyu Zhang,

    Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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  • Guohua Xu,

    Affiliations: Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Gangcai Xie,

    Affiliations: Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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  • Na Li,

    Affiliation: Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch, Germany

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  • Yuhui Hu,

    Affiliation: Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch, Germany

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  • Wei Chen,

    Affiliations: Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany

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  • Svante Pääbo mail,

    paabo@eva.mpg.de (SP); khaitovich@eva.mpg.de (PK)

    Affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Philipp Khaitovich mail

    paabo@eva.mpg.de (SP); khaitovich@eva.mpg.de (PK)

    Affiliations: Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Published: December 06, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001214

About the Authors

Mehmet Somel, Xiling Liu, Lin Tang, Zheng Yan, Haiyang Hu, Song Guo, Xi Jiang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Guohua Xu, Gangcai Xie, Philipp Khaitovich
Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
Mehmet Somel, Guohua Xu, Svante Pääbo, Philipp Khaitovich
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
Gangcai Xie
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Na Li, Yuhui Hu, Wei Chen
Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch, Germany
Wei Chen
Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: MS WC SP PK. Performed the experiments: YZ XJ XZ NL YH. Analyzed the data: MS XL LT HH SG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GXu GXie WC. Wrote the paper: MS XL LT SP PK.