Advertisement
Research Article

Binding of Superantigen Toxins into the CD28 Homodimer Interface Is Essential for Induction of Cytokine Genes That Mediate Lethal Shock

  • Gila Arad equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Gila Arad, Revital Levy

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

    X
  • Revital Levy equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Gila Arad, Revital Levy

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

    X
  • Iris Nasie,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

    X
  • Dalia Hillman,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

    X
  • Ziv Rotfogel,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

    X
  • Uri Barash,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

    X
  • Emmanuelle Supper,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

    X
  • Tomer Shpilka,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

    X
  • Adi Minis,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

    X
  • Raymond Kaempfer mail

    kaempfer@hebrew.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

    X
  • Published: September 13, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001149

About the Authors

Gila Arad, Revital Levy, Iris Nasie, Dalia Hillman, Ziv Rotfogel, Uri Barash, Emmanuelle Supper, Tomer Shpilka, Adi Minis, Raymond Kaempfer
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

Corresponding Author

Email: kaempfer@hebrew.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: GA RL ZR RK. Performed the experiments: GA RL IN DH ZR UB ES TS AM. Analyzed the data: RK GA RL IN DH ZR UB ES TS AM. Wrote the paper: RK GA RL.