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Research Article

Exceptional Diversity, Maintenance of Polymorphism, and Recent Directional Selection on the APL1 Malaria Resistance Genes of Anopheles gambiae

  • Susan M. Rottschaefer,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

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  • Michelle M. Riehle,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Boubacar Coulibaly,

    Affiliation: Malaria Research and Training Center, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Madjou Sacko,

    Affiliation: Malaria Research and Training Center, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Oumou Niaré,

    Affiliation: Malaria Research and Training Center, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Isabelle Morlais,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire de Recherche sur le Paludisme, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD-OCEAC, Yaoundé, Cameroun

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  • Sekou F. Traoré,

    Affiliation: Malaria Research and Training Center, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali

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  • Kenneth D. Vernick,

    Affiliation: Unit of Insect Vector Genetics and Genomics, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

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  • Brian P. Lazzaro mail

    bplazzaro@cornell.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

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  • Published: March 08, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000600

About the Authors

Susan M. Rottschaefer, Brian P. Lazzaro
Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America
Michelle M. Riehle
Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States of America
Boubacar Coulibaly, Madjou Sacko, Oumou Niaré, Sekou F. Traoré
Malaria Research and Training Center, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali
Isabelle Morlais
Laboratoire de Recherche sur le Paludisme, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD-OCEAC, Yaoundé, Cameroun
Kenneth D. Vernick
Unit of Insect Vector Genetics and Genomics, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Corresponding Author

Email: bplazzaro@cornell.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: SMR MMR KDV BPL. Performed the experiments: SMR MMR. Analyzed the data: SMR BPL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MMR BC MS ON IM SFT KDV. Wrote the paper: SMR MMR BC MS ON IM SFT KDV BPL.