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Research Article

An Excitatory Loop with Astrocytes Contributes to Drive Neurons to Seizure Threshold

  • Marta Gómez-Gonzalo equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Marta Gómez-Gonzalo, Gabriele Losi

    Affiliations: Institute of Neuroscience – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), University of Padova, Padova, Italy, Department of Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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  • Gabriele Losi equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Marta Gómez-Gonzalo, Gabriele Losi

    Affiliations: Institute of Neuroscience – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), University of Padova, Padova, Italy, Department of Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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  • Angela Chiavegato,

    Affiliations: Institute of Neuroscience – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), University of Padova, Padova, Italy, Department of Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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  • Micaela Zonta,

    Affiliations: Institute of Neuroscience – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), University of Padova, Padova, Italy, Department of Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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  • Mario Cammarota,

    Affiliations: Institute of Neuroscience – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), University of Padova, Padova, Italy, Department of Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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  • Marco Brondi,

    Affiliations: National Enterprise for nanoScience and nanoTechnology (NEST), Instituto Nanoscienze CNR, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy, Institute of Neuroscience – CNR, Pisa, Italy

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  • Francesco Vetri,

    Affiliation: Institute of Neuroscience – CNR, Pisa, Italy

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  • Laura Uva,

    Affiliation: Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy

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  • Tullio Pozzan,

    Affiliations: Institute of Neuroscience – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), University of Padova, Padova, Italy, Department of Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy, Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padova, Italy

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  • Marco de Curtis,

    Affiliation: Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy

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  • Gian Michele Ratto,

    Affiliations: National Enterprise for nanoScience and nanoTechnology (NEST), Instituto Nanoscienze CNR, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy, Institute of Neuroscience – CNR, Pisa, Italy

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  • Giorgio Carmignoto mail

    giorgio.carmignoto@bio.unipd.it

    Affiliations: Institute of Neuroscience – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), University of Padova, Padova, Italy, Department of Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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  • Published: April 13, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000352

About the Authors

Marta Gómez-Gonzalo, Gabriele Losi, Angela Chiavegato, Micaela Zonta, Mario Cammarota, Tullio Pozzan, Giorgio Carmignoto
Institute of Neuroscience – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Marta Gómez-Gonzalo, Gabriele Losi, Angela Chiavegato, Micaela Zonta, Mario Cammarota, Tullio Pozzan, Giorgio Carmignoto
Department of Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Marco Brondi, Gian Michele Ratto
National Enterprise for nanoScience and nanoTechnology (NEST), Instituto Nanoscienze CNR, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy
Marco Brondi, Francesco Vetri, Gian Michele Ratto
Institute of Neuroscience – CNR, Pisa, Italy
Laura Uva, Marco de Curtis
Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy
Tullio Pozzan
Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padova, Italy

Corresponding Author

Email: giorgio.carmignoto@bio.unipd.it

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: MdC GMR GC. Performed the experiments: MGG GL AC MZ MB FV LU MdC GMR GC. Analyzed the data: MGG GL AC MZ MC MB MdC GMR GC. Wrote the paper: TP MdC GMR GC.