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Research Article

Absolute Humidity and the Seasonal Onset of Influenza in the Continental United States

  • Jeffrey Shaman mail,

    jshaman@coas.oregonstate.edu

    Affiliation: College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America

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  • Virginia E. Pitzer,

    Affiliations: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America

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  • Cécile Viboud,

    Affiliation: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Bryan T. Grenfell,

    Affiliations: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America

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  • Marc Lipsitch

    Affiliations: Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Published: February 23, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000316

About the Authors

Jeffrey Shaman
College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America
Virginia E. Pitzer, Cécile Viboud, Bryan T. Grenfell
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Virginia E. Pitzer
Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Virginia E. Pitzer, Bryan T. Grenfell
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America
Bryan T. Grenfell
Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America
Marc Lipsitch
Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Marc Lipsitch
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Marc Lipsitch
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: jshaman@coas.oregonstate.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: JS VEP CV BTG ML. Performed the experiments: JS. Analyzed the data: JS VEP CV BTG ML. Wrote the paper: JS VEP CV BTG ML.