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Research Article

Cooperative Retraction of Bundled Type IV Pili Enables Nanonewton Force Generation

  • Nicolas Biais,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Benoît Ladoux,

    Affiliation: Matière et Systèmes Complexes, CNRS UMR7057/Université Paris 7, Bâtiment Condorcet, 75205 Paris cedex 13, France

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  • Dustin Higashi,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunobiology, BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Magdalene So,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunobiology, BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Michael Sheetz mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ms2001@columbia.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Published: April 15, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060087

About the Authors

Nicolas Biais, Michael Sheetz
Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America
Benoît Ladoux
Matière et Systèmes Complexes, CNRS UMR7057/Université Paris 7, Bâtiment Condorcet, 75205 Paris cedex 13, France
Dustin Higashi, Magdalene So
Department of Immunobiology, BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: ms2001@columbia.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

NB conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, and analyzed the data. BL, DH, and M. So contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. NB, BL, DH, M. So, and M. Sheetz wrote the paper.