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Research Article

Cryptochromes Define a Novel Circadian Clock Mechanism in Monarch Butterflies That May Underlie Sun Compass Navigation

  • Haisun Zhu,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Ivo Sauman,

    Affiliation: Biology Center, Institute of Entomology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic

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  • Quan Yuan,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Amy Casselman,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Myai Emery-Le,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Patrick Emery,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Steven M Reppert mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: steven.reppert@umassmed.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Published: January 08, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060004

About the Authors

Haisun Zhu, Quan Yuan, Amy Casselman, Myai Emery-Le, Patrick Emery, Steven M Reppert
Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America
Ivo Sauman
Biology Center, Institute of Entomology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic

Corresponding Author

Email: steven.reppert@umassmed.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

SR, HZ, IS, QY, AC, and PE conceived and designed the experiments and wrote the paper. HZ, IS, QY, AC, and ME performed the experiments. HZ, IS, QY, AC, ME, PE, and SR analyzed the data and contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.