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Research Article

Evolution of Symbiotic Bacteria in the Distal Human Intestine

  • Jian Xu equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Jian Xu, Michael A Mahowald

    Affiliations: Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Michael A Mahowald equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Jian Xu, Michael A Mahowald

    Affiliation: Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Ruth E Ley,

    Affiliation: Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Catherine A Lozupone,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America

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  • Micah Hamady,

    Affiliation: Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America

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  • Eric C Martens,

    Affiliation: Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Bernard Henrissat,

    Affiliations: Universités Aix-Marseille I and II, Marseille, France, CNRS, UMR6098, Marseille, France

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  • Pedro M Coutinho,

    Affiliations: Universités Aix-Marseille I and II, Marseille, France, CNRS, UMR6098, Marseille, France

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  • Patrick Minx,

    Affiliation: Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Philippe Latreille,

    Affiliation: Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Holland Cordum,

    Affiliation: Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Andrew Van Brunt,

    Affiliation: Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Kyung Kim,

    Affiliation: Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Robert S Fulton,

    Affiliation: Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Lucinda A Fulton,

    Affiliation: Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Sandra W Clifton,

    Affiliation: Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Richard K Wilson,

    Affiliations: Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Robin D Knight,

    Affiliation: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America

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  • Jeffrey I Gordon mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jgordon@wustl.edu

    Affiliation: Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Published: June 19, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050156

About the Authors

Jian Xu, Michael A Mahowald, Ruth E Ley, Eric C Martens, Richard K Wilson, Jeffrey I Gordon
Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
Jian Xu, Patrick Minx, Philippe Latreille, Holland Cordum, Andrew Van Brunt, Kyung Kim, Robert S Fulton, Lucinda A Fulton, Sandra W Clifton, Richard K Wilson
Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
Catherine A Lozupone
Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America
Micah Hamady
Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America
Bernard Henrissat, Pedro M Coutinho
Universités Aix-Marseille I and II, Marseille, France
Bernard Henrissat, Pedro M Coutinho
CNRS, UMR6098, Marseille, France
Robin D Knight
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: jgordon@wustl.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

JX, MAM, SWC, RKW, RDK, and JIG conceived and designed the experiments. JX, MAM, CAL, MH, ECM, PM, PL, HC, AVB, KK, RSF, LAF, and RDK performed the experiments. JX, MAM, REL, CAL, MH, ECM, BH, PMC, RDK, and JIG analyzed the data. JX and RDK contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. JX, MAM, REL, CAL, ECM, RDK, and JIG wrote the paper.