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Research Article

Evolution of Melanopsin Photoreceptors: Discovery and Characterization of a New Melanopsin in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

  • James Bellingham mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: james.bellingham@manchester.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

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  • Shyam S Chaurasia,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Zara Melyan,

    Affiliation: Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Cuimei Liu,

    Affiliation: Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Morven A Cameron,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

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  • Emma E Tarttelin,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

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  • P. Michael Iuvone,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Mark W Hankins,

    Affiliation: Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Gianluca Tosini,

    Affiliation: Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Robert J Lucas

    Affiliation: Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

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  • Published: July 25, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040254

About the Authors

James Bellingham, Morven A Cameron, Emma E Tarttelin, Robert J Lucas
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Shyam S Chaurasia, P. Michael Iuvone
Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Zara Melyan, Mark W Hankins
Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Cuimei Liu, Gianluca Tosini
Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: james.bellingham@manchester.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

JB, SSC, PMI, MWH, GT, and RJL conceived and designed the experiments. JB, SSC, ZM, CL, MAC, and EET performed the experiments. JB, SSC, ZM, CL, MAC, and EET analysed the data. PMI, MWH, GT, and RJL contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. JB and RJL wrote the paper.