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Research Article

A Gradual Process of Recombination Restriction in the Evolutionary History of the Sex Chromosomes in Dioecious Plants

  • Michael Nicolas equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Michael Nicolas, Gabriel Marais, Vladka Hykelova

    Affiliation: Laboratoire de Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, ENS Lyon, Lyon, France

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  • Gabriel Marais equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Michael Nicolas, Gabriel Marais, Vladka Hykelova

    Affiliation: Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Science, University of Edinburgh, King's Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Vladka Hykelova equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Michael Nicolas, Gabriel Marais, Vladka Hykelova

    Affiliations: Laboratoire de Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, ENS Lyon, Lyon, France, Laboratory of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic

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  • Bohuslav Janousek,

    Affiliations: Laboratoire de Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, ENS Lyon, Lyon, France, Laboratory of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic

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  • Valérie Laporte,

    Affiliation: Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Science, University of Edinburgh, King's Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Boris Vyskot,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic

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  • Dominique Mouchiroud,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Bâtiment Gregor Mendel, Villeurbanne Cedex, France

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  • Ioan Negrutiu,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire de Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, ENS Lyon, Lyon, France

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  • Deborah Charlesworth mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Deborah.Charlesworth@ed.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Science, University of Edinburgh, King's Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Françoise Monéger

    Affiliation: Laboratoire de Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, ENS Lyon, Lyon, France

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  • Published: December 21, 2004
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030004

About the Authors

Michael Nicolas, Vladka Hykelova, Bohuslav Janousek, Ioan Negrutiu, Françoise Monéger
Laboratoire de Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, ENS Lyon, Lyon, France
Gabriel Marais, Valérie Laporte, Deborah Charlesworth
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Science, University of Edinburgh, King's Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Vladka Hykelova, Bohuslav Janousek, Boris Vyskot
Laboratory of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic
Dominique Mouchiroud
Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Bâtiment Gregor Mendel, Villeurbanne Cedex, France

Corresponding Author

Email: Deborah.Charlesworth@ed.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

GM, BJ, VL, BV, DC, and FM conceived and designed the experiments. MN, VH, BJ, VL, and FM performed the experiments. GM, VH, BJ, and DC analyzed the data. GM, DC, VL, DM, and FM contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. IN discussed the paper, and GM, DC, and FM wrote the paper.