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Research Article

The Genetic Architecture of Parallel Armor Plate Reduction in Threespine Sticklebacks

  • Pamela F Colosimo equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Pamela F Colosimo, Catherine L Peichel

    Affiliation: Department of Developmental Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Catherine L Peichel equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Pamela F Colosimo, Catherine L Peichel

    Affiliation: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Kirsten Nereng,

    Affiliation: Department of Developmental Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Benjamin K Blackman,

    Affiliation: Department of Developmental Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Michael D Shapiro,

    Affiliation: Department of Developmental Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

    X
  • Dolph Schluter,

    Affiliation: University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    X
  • David M Kingsley mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: kingsley@cmgm.stanford.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Developmental Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Published: March 30, 2004
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020109

About the Authors

Pamela F Colosimo, Kirsten Nereng, Benjamin K Blackman, Michael D Shapiro, David M Kingsley
Department of Developmental Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
Catherine L Peichel
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Dolph Schluter
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: kingsley@cmgm.stanford.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

Author Contributions

PFC, CLP, DS, and DMK conceived and designed the experiments. PFC, CLP, KN, BJB, MDS, and DS performed the experiments. PFC, CLP, and DMK analyzed the data. DS contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. PFC, CLP, MDS, and DMK wrote the paper.