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Research Article

Water Stress Strengthens Mutualism Among Ants, Trees, and Scale Insects

  • Elizabeth G. Pringle mail,

    epringle@umich.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America, Michigan Society of Fellows, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Erol Akçay,

    Affiliations: Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America, National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America

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  • Ted K. Raab,

    Affiliation: Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Rodolfo Dirzo,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Deborah M. Gordon

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Published: November 05, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001705
  • Featured in PLOS Collections

About the Authors

Elizabeth G. Pringle, Erol Akçay, Rodolfo Dirzo, Deborah M. Gordon
Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
Elizabeth G. Pringle
Michigan Society of Fellows, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Elizabeth G. Pringle
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Elizabeth G. Pringle
School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Erol Akçay
National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America
Erol Akçay
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America
Ted K. Raab
Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: epringle@umich.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: EGP EA RD DMG. Performed the experiments: EGP. Analyzed the data: EGP TKR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TKR RD DMG. Wrote the paper: EGP EA RD DMG. Wrote the mathematical model: EA.