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Research Article

Genomic DNA Sequences from Mastodon and Woolly Mammoth Reveal Deep Speciation of Forest and Savanna Elephants

  • Nadin Rohland equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Nadin Rohland, David Reich

    nrohland@genetics.med.harvard.edu (NR); reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu (DR); roca@illinois.edu (ALR); msh503@york.ac.uk (MH)

    Affiliations: Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • David Reich equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Nadin Rohland, David Reich

    nrohland@genetics.med.harvard.edu (NR); reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu (DR); roca@illinois.edu (ALR); msh503@york.ac.uk (MH)

    Affiliations: Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Swapan Mallick,

    Affiliations: Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Matthias Meyer,

    Affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

    X
  • Richard E. Green,

    Affiliations: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, United States of America

    X
  • Nicholas J. Georgiadis,

    Affiliation: Director of Conservation, Ishawooa Mesa Ranch, Cody, Wyoming, United States of America

    X
  • Alfred L. Roca mail,

    nrohland@genetics.med.harvard.edu (NR); reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu (DR); roca@illinois.edu (ALR); msh503@york.ac.uk (MH)

    Affiliation: Department of Animal Sciences and Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America

    X
  • Michael Hofreiter mail

    nrohland@genetics.med.harvard.edu (NR); reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu (DR); roca@illinois.edu (ALR); msh503@york.ac.uk (MH)

    Affiliations: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, Department of Biology, University of York, York, United Kingdom

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  • Published: December 21, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000564

About the Authors

Nadin Rohland, David Reich, Swapan Mallick
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Nadin Rohland, David Reich, Swapan Mallick
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Nadin Rohland, Matthias Meyer, Richard E. Green, Michael Hofreiter
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
Richard E. Green
Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, United States of America
Nicholas J. Georgiadis
Director of Conservation, Ishawooa Mesa Ranch, Cody, Wyoming, United States of America
Alfred L. Roca
Department of Animal Sciences and Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America
Michael Hofreiter
Department of Biology, University of York, York, United Kingdom

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: DR MM MH. Performed the experiments: NR MM. Analyzed the data: NR DR SM REG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DR NJG AR MH. Wrote the paper: NR DR SM AR MH.