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Research Article

Melanopsin as a Sleep Modulator: Circadian Gating of the Direct Effects of Light on Sleep and Altered Sleep Homeostasis in Opn4−/− Mice

  • Jessica W. Tsai,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Jens Hannibal,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshopitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Grace Hagiwara,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Damien Colas,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Elisabeth Ruppert,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Rhythms - CNRS UMR 7168/LC2, Louis Pasteur University and Department of Neurology - School of Medicine, Strasbourg, France

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  • Norman F. Ruby,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • H. Craig Heller,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Paul Franken mail,

    Paul.Franken@unil.ch (PF); Patrice.Bourgin@neurochem.u-strasbg.fr (PB)

    Affiliations: Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America, Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-Dorigny, Switzerland

    These authors are joint senior authors on this work.

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  • Patrice Bourgin mail

    Paul.Franken@unil.ch (PF); Patrice.Bourgin@neurochem.u-strasbg.fr (PB)

    Affiliations: Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America, Laboratory of Rhythms - CNRS UMR 7168/LC2, Louis Pasteur University and Department of Neurology - School of Medicine, Strasbourg, France

    These authors are joint senior authors on this work.

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  • Published: June 09, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000125

About the Authors

Jessica W. Tsai, Grace Hagiwara, Damien Colas, Norman F. Ruby, H. Craig Heller, Paul Franken, Patrice Bourgin
Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
Jens Hannibal
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshopitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Elisabeth Ruppert, Patrice Bourgin
Laboratory of Rhythms - CNRS UMR 7168/LC2, Louis Pasteur University and Department of Neurology - School of Medicine, Strasbourg, France
Paul Franken
Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-Dorigny, Switzerland

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Responsible for supervision and data collection: PB. Developed the study protocol: JWT, JH, GH, DC, ER, NFR, HCH, PF, PB. Performed anatomical experiments: JH, ER. Performed ECoG recordings and scoring: JT, GH, DC. Analyzed sleep and ECoG: PF. Drafted and prepared the final manuscript: HCH, PF, PB. Reviewed, revised, and approved the final paper: JWT, JH, GH, DC, ER NFR, HCH, PF, PB.