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Research Article

Antigen-Engaged B Cells Undergo Chemotaxis toward the T Zone and Form Motile Conjugates with Helper T Cells

  • Takaharu Okada equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Takaharu Okada, Mark J Miller

    Affiliation: Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Mark J Miller equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Takaharu Okada, Mark J Miller

    Affiliation: Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America

    ¤a Current address: Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Ian Parker,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America

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  • Matthew F Krummel,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Margaret Neighbors,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunobiology, DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

    ¤b Current address: Maxygen, Redwood City, California, United States of America

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  • Suzanne B Hartley,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunobiology, DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

    ¤c Current address: Ainslie, ACT, Australia

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  • Anne O'Garra,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunobiology, DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

    ¤d Current address: Laboratory of Immunoregulation, The National Institute for Medical Research, London, United Kingdom

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  • Michael D Cahalan mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mcahalan@uci.edu (MC), Email: cyster@itsa.ucsf.edu (JC)

    Affiliation: Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America

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  • Jason G Cyster mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mcahalan@uci.edu (MC), Email: cyster@itsa.ucsf.edu (JC)

    Affiliation: Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Published: May 03, 2005
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030150

About the Authors

Takaharu Okada, Jason G Cyster
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Mark J Miller, Michael D Cahalan
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America
Ian Parker
Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America
Matthew F Krummel
Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Margaret Neighbors, Suzanne B Hartley, Anne O'Garra
Department of Immunobiology, DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

TO, MJM, MDC, and JGC conceived and designed the experiments. TO and MJM performed the experiments. TO, MJM, IP, MDC, and JGC analyzed the data. TO, MJM, IP, MFK, MN, SBH, AO, MDC, and JGC contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. TO, MJM, IP, MDC, and JGC wrote the paper.