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Research Article

Phylogeography and Genetic Ancestry of Tigers (Panthera tigris)

  • Shu-Jin Luo equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Shu-Jin Luo, Jae-Heup Kim, Stephen J O'Brien

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America, Conservation Biology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America

    X
  • Jae-Heup Kim equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Shu-Jin Luo, Jae-Heup Kim, Stephen J O'Brien

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

    ¤1 Current address: Biochip Project Team, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon, Korea

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  • Warren E Johnson,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Joelle van der Walt,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

    ¤2 Current address: Center for Human Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Janice Martenson,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Naoya Yuhki,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Dale G Miquelle,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Conservation Society, Russian Far East Program, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Olga Uphyrkina,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

    ¤3 Current address: Evolutionary Zoology and Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Biology and Soil Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia

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  • John M Goodrich,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Conservation Society, Hornocker Wildlife Institute, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Howard B Quigley,

    Affiliations: Wildlife Conservation Society, Russian Far East Program, Bronx, New York, United States of America, Wildlife Conservation Society, Hornocker Wildlife Institute, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Ronald Tilson,

    Affiliation: Minnesota Zoo, Apple Valley, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Gerald Brady,

    Affiliation: Potter Park Zoo, Lansing, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Paolo Martelli,

    Affiliation: Singapore Zoological Gardens, Singapore

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  • Vellayan Subramaniam,

    Affiliation: Zoo Negara, Hulu Kelang, Selangor, Malaysia

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  • Charles McDougal,

    Affiliation: Tiger Tops, Kathmandu, Nepal

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  • Sun Hean,

    Affiliation: International Cooperation Office, Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

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  • Shi-Qiang Huang,

    Affiliation: Beijing Zoo, Beijing, China

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  • Wenshi Pan,

    Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China

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  • Ullas K Karanth,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Conservation Society—India Program, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

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  • Melvin Sunquist,

    Affiliation: Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

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  • James L. D Smith,

    Affiliation: Conservation Biology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Stephen J O'Brien equal contributor mail

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Shu-Jin Luo, Jae-Heup Kim, Stephen J O'Brien

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: obrien@ncifcrf.gov

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: December 07, 2004
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020442

About the Authors

Shu-Jin Luo, Jae-Heup Kim, Warren E Johnson, Joelle van der Walt, Janice Martenson, Naoya Yuhki, Olga Uphyrkina, Stephen J O'Brien
Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America
Shu-Jin Luo, James L. D Smith
Conservation Biology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America
Dale G Miquelle, Howard B Quigley
Wildlife Conservation Society, Russian Far East Program, Bronx, New York, United States of America
John M Goodrich, Howard B Quigley
Wildlife Conservation Society, Hornocker Wildlife Institute, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America
Ronald Tilson
Minnesota Zoo, Apple Valley, Minnesota, United States of America
Gerald Brady
Potter Park Zoo, Lansing, Michigan, United States of America
Paolo Martelli
Singapore Zoological Gardens, Singapore
Vellayan Subramaniam
Zoo Negara, Hulu Kelang, Selangor, Malaysia
Charles McDougal
Tiger Tops, Kathmandu, Nepal
Sun Hean
International Cooperation Office, Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Shi-Qiang Huang
Beijing Zoo, Beijing, China
Wenshi Pan
College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China
Ullas K Karanth
Wildlife Conservation Society—India Program, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Melvin Sunquist
Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: obrien@ncifcrf.gov

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no conflicts of interests exist.

Author Contributions

SJL, JHK, WEJ, JV, NY, and SJOB conceived and designed the experiments. SJL, JHK, JV, JM, and OU performed the experiments. SJL, JHK, and WEJ analyzed the data. SJL, WEJ, JM, NY, DM, OU, JMG, HBQ, RT, GB, PM, VS, CM, SH, SQH, WP, UKK, MS, JLDS, and SJOB contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. SJL, JHK, WEJ, and SJOB wrote the paper.