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Research Article

Integrative Annotation of 21,037 Human Genes Validated by Full-Length cDNA Clones

  • Tadashi Imanishi,

    Affiliation: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Takeshi Itoh,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Bioinformatics Laboratory, Genome Research Department, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ibaraki, Japan

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  • Yutaka Suzuki,

    Affiliations: Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Claire O'Donovan,

    Affiliation: EMBL Outstation—European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Satoshi Fukuchi,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Kanako O Koyanagi,

    Affiliation: Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara, Japan

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  • Roberto A Barrero,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Takuro Tamura,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, BITS Company, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Yumi Yamaguchi-Kabata,

    Affiliation: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Motohiko Tanino,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Kei Yura,

    Affiliation: Quantum Bioinformatics Group, Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kyoto, Japan

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  • Satoru Miyazaki,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Kazuho Ikeo,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Keiichi Homma,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Arek Kasprzyk,

    Affiliation: EMBL Outstation—European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Tetsuo Nishikawa,

    Affiliations: Reverse Proteomics Research Institute, Chiba, Japan, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Mika Hirakawa,

    Affiliation: Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

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  • Jean Thierry-Mieg,

    Affiliations: National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Laboratoire de Physique Mathematique, Montpellier, France

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  • Danielle Thierry-Mieg,

    Affiliations: National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Laboratoire de Physique Mathematique, Montpellier, France

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  • Jennifer Ashurst,

    Affiliation: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Libin Jia,

    Affiliation: National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Mitsuteru Nakao,

    Affiliation: Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Michael A Thomas,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho, United States of America

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  • Nicola Mulder,

    Affiliation: EMBL Outstation—European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Youla Karavidopoulou,

    Affiliation: EMBL Outstation—European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Lihua Jin,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Sangsoo Kim,

    Affiliation: Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon, Korea

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  • Tomohiro Yasuda,

    Affiliation: Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Boris Lenhard,

    Affiliation: Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Eric Eveno,

    Affiliations: Genexpress—CNRS—Functional Genomics and Systemic Biology for Health, Villejuif Cedex, France, Sino-French Laboratory in Life Sciences and Genomics, Shanghai, China

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  • Yoshiyuki Suzuki,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Chisato Yamasaki,

    Affiliation: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Jun-ichi Takeda,

    Affiliation: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Craig Gough,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Phillip Hilton,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Yasuyuki Fujii,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Hiroaki Sakai,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, Tokyo Research Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Company, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Susumu Tanaka,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Clara Amid,

    Affiliation: MIPS—Institute for Bioinformatics, GSF—National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Matthew Bellgard,

    Affiliation: Centre for Bioinformatics and Biological Computing, School of Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia

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  • Maria de Fatima Bonaldo,

    Affiliation: Medical Education and Biomedical Research Facility, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America

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  • Hidemasa Bono,

    Affiliation: Genome Exploration Research Group, RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Kanagawa, Japan

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  • Susan K Bromberg,

    Affiliation: Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America

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  • Anthony J Brookes,

    Affiliation: Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Elspeth Bruford,

    Affiliation: HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, University College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Piero Carninci,

    Affiliation: Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama, Japan

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  • Claude Chelala,

    Affiliation: Genexpress—CNRS—Functional Genomics and Systemic Biology for Health, Villejuif Cedex, France

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  • Christine Couillault,

    Affiliations: Genexpress—CNRS—Functional Genomics and Systemic Biology for Health, Villejuif Cedex, France, Sino-French Laboratory in Life Sciences and Genomics, Shanghai, China

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  • Sandro J. de Souza,

    Affiliation: Ludwig Institute of Cancer Research, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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  • Marie-Anne Debily,

    Affiliation: Genexpress—CNRS—Functional Genomics and Systemic Biology for Health, Villejuif Cedex, France

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  • Marie-Dominique Devignes,

    Affiliation: CNRS, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France

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  • Inna Dubchak,

    Affiliation: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States of America

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  • Toshinori Endo,

    Affiliation: Department of Bioinformatics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Anne Estreicher,

    Affiliation: Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Eduardo Eyras,

    Affiliation: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Kaoru Fukami-Kobayashi,

    Affiliation: Bioresource Information Division, RIKEN BioResource Center, RIKEN Tsukuba Institute, Ibaraki, Japan

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  • Gopal R. Gopinath,

    Affiliation: Genome Knowledgebase, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, United States of America

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  • Esther Graudens,

    Affiliations: Genexpress—CNRS—Functional Genomics and Systemic Biology for Health, Villejuif Cedex, France, Sino-French Laboratory in Life Sciences and Genomics, Shanghai, China

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  • Yoonsoo Hahn,

    Affiliation: Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon, Korea

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  • Michael Han,

    Affiliation: MIPS—Institute for Bioinformatics, GSF—National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Ze-Guang Han,

    Affiliations: Sino-French Laboratory in Life Sciences and Genomics, Shanghai, China, Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, Shanghai, China

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  • Kousuke Hanada,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Hideki Hanaoka,

    Affiliation: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Erimi Harada,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Katsuyuki Hashimoto,

    Affiliation: Division of Genetic Resources, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Ursula Hinz,

    Affiliation: Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Momoki Hirai,

    Affiliation: Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, Department of Integrated Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan

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  • Teruyoshi Hishiki,

    Affiliation: Functional Genomics Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Ian Hopkinson,

    Affiliations: Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, Royal Free University College Medical School, University College London, London, United Kingdom, Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, The Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom

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  • Sandrine Imbeaud,

    Affiliations: Genexpress—CNRS—Functional Genomics and Systemic Biology for Health, Villejuif Cedex, France, Sino-French Laboratory in Life Sciences and Genomics, Shanghai, China

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  • Hidetoshi Inoko,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, Department of Genetic Information, Division of Molecular Life Science, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan

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  • Alexander Kanapin,

    Affiliation: EMBL Outstation—European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Yayoi Kaneko,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Takeya Kasukawa,

    Affiliation: Genome Exploration Research Group, RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Kanagawa, Japan

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  • Janet Kelso,

    Affiliation: South African National Bioinformatics Institute, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa

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  • Paul Kersey,

    Affiliation: EMBL Outstation—European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Reiko Kikuno,

    Affiliation: Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba, Japan

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  • Kouichi Kimura,

    Affiliation: Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Bernhard Korn,

    Affiliation: RZPD Resource Center for Genome Research, Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Vladimir Kuryshev,

    Affiliation: Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center-DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Izabela Makalowska,

    Affiliation: Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Takashi Makino,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Shuhei Mano,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetic Information, Division of Molecular Life Science, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan

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  • Regine Mariage-Samson,

    Affiliation: Genexpress—CNRS—Functional Genomics and Systemic Biology for Health, Villejuif Cedex, France

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  • Jun Mashima,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Hideo Matsuda,

    Affiliation: Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

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  • Hans-Werner Mewes,

    Affiliation: MIPS—Institute for Bioinformatics, GSF—National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Shinsei Minoshima,

    Affiliations: Medical Photobiology Department, Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan, Department of Molecular Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Keiichi Nagai,

    Affiliation: Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Hideki Nagasaki,

    Affiliation: Computational Biology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Naoki Nagata,

    Affiliation: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Rajni Nigam,

    Affiliation: Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America

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  • Osamu Ogasawara,

    Affiliation: Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Osamu Ohara,

    Affiliation: Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba, Japan

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  • Masafumi Ohtsubo,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Norihiro Okada,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa, Japan

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  • Toshihisa Okido,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Satoshi Oota,

    Affiliation: Bioresource Information Division, RIKEN BioResource Center, RIKEN Tsukuba Institute, Ibaraki, Japan

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  • Motonori Ota,

    Affiliation: Global Scientific Information and Computing Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Toshio Ota,

    Affiliation: Tokyo Research Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Company, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Tetsuji Otsuki,

    Affiliation: Molecular Biology Laboratory, Medicinal Research Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Company, Saitama, Japan

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  • Dominique Piatier-Tonneau,

    Affiliation: Genexpress—CNRS—Functional Genomics and Systemic Biology for Health, Villejuif Cedex, France

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  • Annemarie Poustka,

    Affiliation: Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center-DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Shuang-Xi Ren,

    Affiliations: Sino-French Laboratory in Life Sciences and Genomics, Shanghai, China, Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, Shanghai, China

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  • Naruya Saitou,

    Affiliation: Department of Population Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Katsunaga Sakai,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Shigetaka Sakamoto,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Ryuichi Sakate,

    Affiliation: Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, Department of Integrated Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan

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  • Ingo Schupp,

    Affiliation: Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center-DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Florence Servant,

    Affiliation: EMBL Outstation—European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Stephen Sherry,

    Affiliation: National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Rie Shiba,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Nobuyoshi Shimizu,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Mary Shimoyama,

    Affiliation: Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America

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  • Andrew J Simpson,

    Affiliation: Ludwig Institute of Cancer Research, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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  • Bento Soares,

    Affiliation: Medical Education and Biomedical Research Facility, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America

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  • Charles Steward,

    Affiliation: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Makiko Suwa,

    Affiliation: Computational Biology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Mami Suzuki,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Aiko Takahashi,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Gen Tamiya,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, Department of Genetic Information, Division of Molecular Life Science, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan

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  • Hiroshi Tanaka,

    Affiliation: Department of Bioinformatics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Todd Taylor,

    Affiliation: Human Genome Research Group, Genomic Sciences Center, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Kanagawa, Japan

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  • Joseph D Terwilliger,

    Affiliation: Columbia University and Columbia Genome Center, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Per Unneberg,

    Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Vamsi Veeramachaneni,

    Affiliation: Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Shinya Watanabe,

    Affiliation: Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Laurens Wilming,

    Affiliation: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Norikazu Yasuda,

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Hyang-Sook Yoo,

    Affiliation: Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon, Korea

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  • Marvin Stodolsky,

    Affiliation: Biology Division and Genome Task Group, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, United States Department of Energy, Washington, D.C, United States of America

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  • Wojciech Makalowski,

    Affiliation: Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Mitiko Go,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Bio-Science, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Shiga, Japan

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  • Kenta Nakai,

    Affiliation: Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Toshihisa Takagi,

    Affiliation: Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Minoru Kanehisa,

    Affiliation: Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

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  • Yoshiyuki Sakaki,

    Affiliations: Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, Human Genome Research Group, Genomic Sciences Center, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Kanagawa, Japan

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  • John Quackenbush,

    Affiliation: Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Yasushi Okazaki,

    Affiliation: Genome Exploration Research Group, RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Kanagawa, Japan

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  • Yoshihide Hayashizaki,

    Affiliation: Genome Exploration Research Group, RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Kanagawa, Japan

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  • Winston Hide,

    Affiliation: South African National Bioinformatics Institute, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa

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  • Ranajit Chakraborty,

    Affiliation: Center for Genome Information, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America

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  • Ken Nishikawa,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Hideaki Sugawara,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Yoshio Tateno,

    Affiliation: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Zhu Chen,

    Affiliations: Sino-French Laboratory in Life Sciences and Genomics, Shanghai, China, Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, Shanghai, China, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai, China

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  • Michio Oishi,

    Affiliation: Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba, Japan

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  • Peter Tonellato,

    Affiliation: PointOne Systems, Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, United States of America

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  • Rolf Apweiler,

    Affiliation: EMBL Outstation—European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Kousaku Okubo,

    Affiliations: Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan, Functional Genomics Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Lukas Wagner,

    Affiliation: National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Stefan Wiemann,

    Affiliation: Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center-DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Robert L Strausberg,

    Affiliation: National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Takao Isogai,

    Affiliations: Reverse Proteomics Research Institute, Chiba, Japan, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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  • Charles Auffray,

    Affiliations: Genexpress—CNRS—Functional Genomics and Systemic Biology for Health, Villejuif Cedex, France, Sino-French Laboratory in Life Sciences and Genomics, Shanghai, China

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  • Nobuo Nomura,

    Affiliation: Functional Genomics Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Takashi Gojobori mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: tgojobor@genes.nig.ac.jp

    Affiliations: Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan, Department of Genetics, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shizuoka, Japan

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  • Sumio Sugano

    Affiliations: Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, Functional Genomics Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Published: April 20, 2004
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020162

About the Authors

Tadashi Imanishi, Takeshi Itoh, Yumi Yamaguchi-Kabata, Motohiko Tanino, Chisato Yamasaki, Jun-ichi Takeda, Craig Gough, Phillip Hilton, Yasuyuki Fujii, Hiroaki Sakai, Susumu Tanaka, Hideki Hanaoka, Erimi Harada, Hidetoshi Inoko, Yayoi Kaneko, Naoki Nagata, Rie Shiba, Aiko Takahashi, Gen Tamiya, Norikazu Yasuda, Takashi Gojobori
Integrated Database Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Takeshi Itoh
Bioinformatics Laboratory, Genome Research Department, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ibaraki, Japan
Yutaka Suzuki, Mitsuteru Nakao, Osamu Ogasawara, Shinya Watanabe, Kenta Nakai, Toshihisa Takagi, Yoshiyuki Sakaki, Sumio Sugano
Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Claire O'Donovan, Arek Kasprzyk, Nicola Mulder, Youla Karavidopoulou, Alexander Kanapin, Paul Kersey, Florence Servant, Rolf Apweiler
EMBL Outstation—European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Satoshi Fukuchi, Roberto A Barrero, Satoru Miyazaki, Kazuho Ikeo, Keiichi Homma, Lihua Jin, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Kousuke Hanada, Takashi Makino, Jun Mashima, Toshihisa Okido, Katsunaga Sakai, Shigetaka Sakamoto, Mami Suzuki, Ken Nishikawa, Hideaki Sugawara, Yoshio Tateno, Kousaku Okubo, Takashi Gojobori
Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan
Kanako O Koyanagi
Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara, Japan
Takuro Tamura, Motohiko Tanino, Craig Gough, Phillip Hilton, Yasuyuki Fujii, Hiroaki Sakai, Susumu Tanaka, Erimi Harada, Hidetoshi Inoko, Yayoi Kaneko, Rie Shiba, Aiko Takahashi, Gen Tamiya, Norikazu Yasuda
Integrated Database Group, Japan Biological Information Research Center, Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Tokyo, Japan
Takuro Tamura
BITS Company, Shizuoka, Japan
Kei Yura
Quantum Bioinformatics Group, Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kyoto, Japan
Tetsuo Nishikawa, Takao Isogai
Reverse Proteomics Research Institute, Chiba, Japan
Tetsuo Nishikawa, Tomohiro Yasuda, Kouichi Kimura, Keiichi Nagai
Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan
Mika Hirakawa, Minoru Kanehisa
Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
Jean Thierry-Mieg, Danielle Thierry-Mieg, Stephen Sherry, Lukas Wagner
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Jean Thierry-Mieg, Danielle Thierry-Mieg
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Laboratoire de Physique Mathematique, Montpellier, France
Jennifer Ashurst, Eduardo Eyras, Charles Steward, Laurens Wilming
The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Libin Jia, Robert L Strausberg
National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Michael A Thomas
Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho, United States of America
Sangsoo Kim, Yoonsoo Hahn, Hyang-Sook Yoo
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon, Korea
Boris Lenhard, Anthony J Brookes
Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Eric Eveno, Claude Chelala, Christine Couillault, Marie-Anne Debily, Esther Graudens, Sandrine Imbeaud, Regine Mariage-Samson, Dominique Piatier-Tonneau, Charles Auffray
Genexpress—CNRS—Functional Genomics and Systemic Biology for Health, Villejuif Cedex, France
Eric Eveno, Christine Couillault, Esther Graudens, Ze-Guang Han, Sandrine Imbeaud, Shuang-Xi Ren, Zhu Chen, Charles Auffray
Sino-French Laboratory in Life Sciences and Genomics, Shanghai, China
Hiroaki Sakai, Toshio Ota
Tokyo Research Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Company, Tokyo, Japan
Clara Amid, Michael Han, Hans-Werner Mewes
MIPS—Institute for Bioinformatics, GSF—National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany
Matthew Bellgard
Centre for Bioinformatics and Biological Computing, School of Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia
Maria de Fatima Bonaldo, Bento Soares
Medical Education and Biomedical Research Facility, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America
Hidemasa Bono, Takeya Kasukawa, Yasushi Okazaki, Yoshihide Hayashizaki
Genome Exploration Research Group, RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Kanagawa, Japan
Susan K Bromberg, Rajni Nigam, Mary Shimoyama
Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America
Elspeth Bruford
HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Piero Carninci
Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama, Japan
Sandro J. de Souza, Andrew J Simpson
Ludwig Institute of Cancer Research, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Marie-Dominique Devignes
CNRS, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
Inna Dubchak
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States of America
Toshinori Endo, Hiroshi Tanaka
Department of Bioinformatics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
Anne Estreicher, Ursula Hinz
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Geneva, Switzerland
Kaoru Fukami-Kobayashi, Satoshi Oota
Bioresource Information Division, RIKEN BioResource Center, RIKEN Tsukuba Institute, Ibaraki, Japan
Gopal R. Gopinath
Genome Knowledgebase, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, United States of America
Ze-Guang Han, Shuang-Xi Ren, Zhu Chen
Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, Shanghai, China
Katsuyuki Hashimoto
Division of Genetic Resources, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
Momoki Hirai, Ryuichi Sakate
Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, Department of Integrated Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan
Teruyoshi Hishiki, Kousaku Okubo, Nobuo Nomura, Sumio Sugano
Functional Genomics Group, Biological Information Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Ian Hopkinson
Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, Royal Free University College Medical School, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Ian Hopkinson
Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, The Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
Hidetoshi Inoko, Shuhei Mano, Gen Tamiya
Department of Genetic Information, Division of Molecular Life Science, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan
Janet Kelso, Winston Hide
South African National Bioinformatics Institute, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa
Reiko Kikuno, Osamu Ohara, Michio Oishi
Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba, Japan
Bernhard Korn
RZPD Resource Center for Genome Research, Heidelberg, Germany
Vladimir Kuryshev, Annemarie Poustka, Ingo Schupp, Stefan Wiemann
Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center-DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany
Izabela Makalowska, Vamsi Veeramachaneni, Wojciech Makalowski
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Hideo Matsuda
Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
Shinsei Minoshima
Medical Photobiology Department, Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan
Hideki Nagasaki, Makiko Suwa
Computational Biology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Shinsei Minoshima, Masafumi Ohtsubo, Nobuyoshi Shimizu
Department of Molecular Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Norihiro Okada
Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa, Japan
Motonori Ota
Global Scientific Information and Computing Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Tetsuji Otsuki
Molecular Biology Laboratory, Medicinal Research Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Company, Saitama, Japan
Naruya Saitou
Department of Population Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan
Todd Taylor, Yoshiyuki Sakaki
Human Genome Research Group, Genomic Sciences Center, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Kanagawa, Japan
Joseph D Terwilliger
Columbia University and Columbia Genome Center, New York, New York, United States of America
Per Unneberg
Department of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
Marvin Stodolsky
Biology Division and Genome Task Group, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, United States Department of Energy, Washington, D.C, United States of America
Mitiko Go
Faculty of Bio-Science, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Shiga, Japan
John Quackenbush
Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
Ranajit Chakraborty
Center for Genome Information, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
Zhu Chen
State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai, China
Peter Tonellato
PointOne Systems, Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, United States of America
Takao Isogai
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
Takashi Gojobori
Department of Genetics, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shizuoka, Japan
Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano
Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Corresponding Author

Email: tgojobor@genes.nig.ac.jp

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

Author Contributions

The project was conceived and designed by T. Imanishi, T. Itoh, Y. Suzuki, C. O'Donovan, S. Fukuchi, Y. Yamaguchi-Kabata, S. Miyazaki, K. Ikeo, A. Kasprzyk, T. Nishikawa, M. Stodolsky, W. Makalowski, M. Go, K. Nakai, T. Takagi, M. Kanehisa, Y. Sakaki, J. Quackenbush, Y. Okazaki, Y. Hayashizaki, W. Hide, R. Chakraborty, K. Nishikawa, H. Sugawara, Y. Tateno, Z. Chen, M. Oishi, P. Tonellato, R. Apweiler, K. Okubo, L. Wagner, S. Wiemann, R. L. Strausberg, T. Isogai, C. Auffray, N. Nomura, T. Gojobori, and S. Sugano.