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Research Article

The Elusive Baseline of Marine Disease: Are Diseases in Ocean Ecosystems Increasing?

  • Jessica R Ward mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jrw37@cornell.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

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  • Kevin D Lafferty

    Affiliation: United States Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center, Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America

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  • Published: April 13, 2004
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020120

About the Authors

Jessica R Ward
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America
Kevin D Lafferty
United States Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center, Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: jrw37@cornell.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

Author Contributions

JRW performed the experiments, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper. KDL conceived and designed the experiments and wrote the paper.