Advertisement
Research Article

Immune Activation and CD8+ T-Cell Differentiation towards Senescence in HIV-1 Infection

  • Laura Papagno,

    Affiliations: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom, Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Milan, L. Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy

    X
  • Celsa A Spina,

    Affiliation: San Diego Veterans Affairs Research Center for AIDS and HIV Infection, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California

    X
  • Arnaud Marchant,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Mariolina Salio,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Nathalie Rufer,

    Affiliation: National Center of Competence in Research Molecular Oncology, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, Epalinges, Switzerland

    X
  • Susan Little,

    Affiliation: San Diego Veterans Affairs Research Center for AIDS and HIV Infection, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California

    X
  • Tao Dong,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Gillian Chesney,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Anele Waters,

    Affiliation: Department of HIV/GUM, The Guy's, Kings', and St Thomas' School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Philippa Easterbrook,

    Affiliation: Department of HIV/GUM, The Guy's, Kings', and St Thomas' School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • P. Rod Dunbar,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Dawn Shepherd,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Vincenzo Cerundolo,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Vincent Emery,

    Affiliation: Department of Virology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Paul Griffiths,

    Affiliation: Department of Virology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Christopher Conlon,

    Affiliation: Nuffield Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Andrew J McMichael,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Douglas D Richman,

    Affiliation: San Diego Veterans Affairs Research Center for AIDS and HIV Infection, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California

    X
  • Sarah L Rowland-Jones,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Victor Appay

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Published: February 17, 2004
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020020

About the Authors

Laura Papagno, Arnaud Marchant, Mariolina Salio, Tao Dong, Gillian Chesney, P. Rod Dunbar, Dawn Shepherd, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Andrew J McMichael, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Victor Appay
Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
Laura Papagno
Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Milan, L. Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy
Celsa A Spina, Susan Little, Douglas D Richman
San Diego Veterans Affairs Research Center for AIDS and HIV Infection, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California
Nathalie Rufer
National Center of Competence in Research Molecular Oncology, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, Epalinges, Switzerland
Anele Waters, Philippa Easterbrook
Department of HIV/GUM, The Guy's, Kings', and St Thomas' School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Vincent Emery, Paul Griffiths
Department of Virology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom
Christopher Conlon
Nuffield Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

Author Contributions

LP, CAS, MS, NR, PRD, AJM, SLR-J, and VA conceived and designed the experiments. LP, AM, NR, GC, VE, and VA performed the experiments. LP, NR, and VA analysed the data. CAS, AM, MS, NR, SL, TD, AW, PE, DS, VC, PG, CC, and DDR contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. SLR-J and VA wrote the paper.