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Research Article

Learning to Control a Brain–Machine Interface for Reaching and Grasping by Primates

  • Jose M Carmena,

    Affiliations: Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Mikhail A Lebedev,

    Affiliations: Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Roy E Crist,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Joseph E O'Doherty,

    Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • David M Santucci,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Dragan F Dimitrov,

    Affiliations: Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Division of Neurosurgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Parag G Patil,

    Affiliations: Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Division of Neurosurgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Craig S Henriquez,

    Affiliations: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Miguel A. L Nicolelis mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: nicoleli@neuro.duke.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Published: October 13, 2003
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0000042

About the Authors

Jose M Carmena, Mikhail A Lebedev, Roy E Crist, David M Santucci, Dragan F Dimitrov, Parag G Patil, Miguel A. L Nicolelis
Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Joseph E O'Doherty, Craig S Henriquez, Miguel A. L Nicolelis
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Dragan F Dimitrov, Parag G Patil
Division of Neurosurgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Jose M Carmena, Mikhail A Lebedev, Craig S Henriquez, Miguel A. L Nicolelis
Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Miguel A. L Nicolelis
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: nicoleli@neuro.duke.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

Author Contributions

JMC and MALN conceived and designed the experiments. JMC, MAL, and MALN performed the experiments. JMC integrated the robotic interface. JMC and MAL analyzed the data. JEO and CSH contributed Beowulf cluster simulations and analyses. REC contributed the initial stages of this study. JMC, DMS, and MAL recorded the EMGs. DFD performed the surgeries; JMC, MAL, REC, PGP, and MALN assisted in the surgeries. JMC, MAL, and MALN wrote the paper.